If I take a poll from amateur photographers on what caused them the most frustration, I can surely bet that they will point their fingers to understanding the exposure triangle.
It is indeed the biggest problem for most people when they start photography. And believe me, it is nothing to be ashamed of, as I got stuck at it as well. So I am making it easier for beginners to understand the exposure triangle by simplifying the terms and clarifying how to use it in the best way possible in this easy-to-understand guide.
It is a bit complex and complicated, but getting the right exposure will become a piece of cake once you get the hang of it. It is the basis of photography and takes time to master, but if you go through this article and practice what you have learned, then you can get well-exposed images within no time.
I promise you that with my guidance, you will have the aperture, shutter speed, and ISO on your fingertips and would be able to balance them in a blink of an eye.
So let us begin easing the confusion by introducing the exposure triangle and its three elements: aperture, shutter speed, and ISO first. Later on, we will combine the three and some essential tips, which will ease you. So scroll along to learn more:
What is the exposure triangle?
You cannot do much if you only know how to change the camera mode dial from auto to manual mode. An excellent start to becoming a proficient photographer would be to truly understand the workings of the exposure triangle.
It is tough but essential as the exposure triangle simplifies the relationship between three of the most vital components in a modern digital camera, ISO, shutter speed, and aperture. These three elements work together in harmony to create exposure, which is why a triangle represents them.
This means that when you adjust one element, you must change other elements in the opposite direction to maintain the same exposure. So you have to learn how to manipulate this exposure triangle and understand this cause and effect relationship as it is paramount to becoming a good photographer.
Simplifying the Exposure Triangle
Remember that “exposure” is only the amount of light that hits the camera’s sensor. So if you can control it wisely, then you can do wonders with your results. It is called exposure because it “exposes” your camera to the light.
It does that in three ways. First by the width of the opening, second by the length of time the shutter remains open and third by the sensor’s sensitivity. All these factors are what eventually controls how much light the final image and they have been defined respectively as:
Aperture – It defines how large the opening of the lens is.
Shutter Speed – It defines how long a time the shutter allows light to pass by remaining open.
ISO – It defines how sensitive the sensor is to light.
Let us go into the depth and working of each of these components so that you can manipulate them easily.
These three elements are easily described separately. If you combine them effectively, you can control all aspects of the exposure triangle, as each element interacts with the other to lead to an excellent exposure.
But the trick is to understand that every element has a different way to manipulate light and impacts exposure differently. Thereby to get good quality exposure, you need to grasp the below-given concepts tightly:
Aperture – which is the opening’s size, impacts exposure by controlling the amount of light that can enter the lens. So if the opening is large, then more light can pass through, and if it is small, then less light can pass through.
It is measured in “f-stops, “and every lens has its range. The numbering can confuse you as a smaller f-stop number such as 1.8 refers to a larger opening, which leads to a better exposure. In comparison, a higher number such as 22 refers to a narrower opening, which leads to less exposure.
Shutter speed – impact exposure by controlling the duration of light that is allowed to hit the sensor. This means if the shutter speed is long (the speed is slow), there will be more light, and if it is short (the speed is fast), there will be less light.
It is measured in seconds. So for more exposure, keep the shutter speed slower, and far less exposure, keep it fast.
ISO – impacts the exposure by controlling the sensitivity of the sensor. If the ISO is low, it means that the sensor is less sensitive, so there will be less exposure, and if the ISO is high, it means that the sensor is more sensitive, so there will be more exposure.
ISO is a concept that digital photographers use today; they lower the ISO number to achieve cleaner looking photographs and less noise, but sometimes for an artistic effect, they raise it.
|ELEMENT||LESS EXPOSURE||MORE EXPOSURE|
|SHUTTER SPEED (seconds)||FASTER||SLOWER|
Here is a table to further help you connect these elements
Harmonizing the three elements
It is essential to understand that to get perfect exposure. All these three elements have to work together in harmony. They combine to create an exposure value (EV). This means that you can’t always manipulate one setting without directly impacting one or both of the other elements of the exposure triangle.
Please watch Run N Gun’s video on YouTube about exposure for even better understanding:
Key tips that will help you out
• Try using the lowest ISO as possible! This way, you achieve the least grainy results with the most color depth and dynamic range. When shooting outdoors, use the range from ISO 100-400. When shooting indoors, use the range from ISO400-3200, and when shooting in dark receptions, use ISO 1600+. These values will vary slightly depending upon the situation as the ambient light differs.
• If you want to capture movement with faster shutter speeds, use higher ISO and wider apertures.
• If you want to get sharp photos and prevent motion blur, then adjust your shutter speed to a minimum 1 with a doubled focal length for the full-frame sensor and 1 with a 1.5 times focal length for a crop sensor.
If you follow the rules stated above, trust me, you can master the exposure setting. From how to measure them and their functions to how they interact, you will understand everything if you arm yourself with this information.
It will better equip you to manipulate your results’ exposure and lead to a more artistic presentation of the depth of field, motion, and digital noise. Yes, at first, it will look like a lot, remember, but don’t let this demotivate you as it takes time to become a champion at this, but once you are done, it will be all worthwhile.
The key is to keep practicing. So now it’s your turn to go out in the field to click some amazing pictures with just the right amount of exposure!